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Elsevier Examines Gender in the Global Research Landscape

Wed, 26th July, 2017

Elsevier’s comprehensive report on research performance through a gender lens, Gender in the Global Research Landscape, spans 20 years, 12 geographies and 27 disciplines.

This global study draws upon data and analytics, a unique gender disambiguation methodology, and involvement of global experts.

A launch event was held in Washington, DC in March 2017 at the National Press Club. Watch a video of the event here.

Download the report here.

 

Category : General

Alabama Woman Stuck In NYC Traffic In 1902 Invented The Windshield Wiper

Wed, 26th July, 2017

From NPR, July 25, 2017

Even the most commonplace devices in our world had to be invented by someone.

Take the windshield wiper. It may seem hard to imagine a world without windshield wipers, but there was one, and Mary Anderson lived in that world.

In 1902, Anderson was visiting New York City.

“She was riding a streetcar and it was snowing,” says the Rev. Sara-Scott Wingo, rector of Emmanuel Episcopal Church in Richmond, Va., and Anderson’s great-great-niece. Wingo never met Anderson, but the story of the invention was passed down to her.

Wingo says while Anderson was riding the streetcar that snowy day, “She observed that the streetcar driver had to get out and continually clean off the windshield.”

Naturally, that caused delays, and got Anderson wondering: What if there were some sort of blade that could wipe off the windshield without making the driver get out of the streetcar?

Anderson went back to Birmingham, made a sketch of her device, and wrote up a description of it. Then she applied for a patent.

The patent application describes how the wiper was to be operated by a handle inside the vestibule of the motor car, and be easily removable — “thus leaving nothing to mar the usual appearance of the car during fair weather,” according to patent language.

Wingo says her great-great-aunt tried to interest manufacturing firms in making this device for the emerging motorcar industry, but got no takers. A letter from the firm of Dinning and Eckenstein is one of Wingo’s prized possessions.

“Dear madam,” the letter begins,” We beg to acknowledge receipt of your recent favor with reference to the sale of your patent. In reply, we regret to state we do not consider it to be of such commercial value as would warrant our undertaking its sale.”

Alabama native Mary Anderson (1866-1953) is credited with inventing the first operational windshield wiper.

Encylopedia of Alabama

“They missed out,” says Wingo. “Don’t you think?”

Wingo doesn’t know for sure why Anderson’s invention never went anywhere, but she suspects it might have been because Anderson was such an independent woman.

“She didn’t have a father; she didn’t have a husband and she didn’t have a son,” Wingo says. “And the world was kind of run by men back then.”

It doesn’t seem as if Mary Anderson was the sort of woman to be crushed by the rejections. She lived another 50 years, long enough to see windshield wipers become ubiquitous.

Certainly Anderson’s accomplishments loom large for Wingo and her family.

“We’re all really proud of her,” says Wingo. “I have three daughters. We talk about Mary Anderson a lot. And we all sort of feel like we want to be open and receptive to sort of our own Mary Anderson moments.”

If Anderson didn’t get any money for her invention, at least she finally got some credit. In 2011 she was inducted into the Inventors Hall of Fame.

Category : General

Two Nursing PhD Candidates Awarded F31 Grants

Wed, 26th July, 2017

Two PhD candidates in the Ohio State College of Nursing have been awarded Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Individual Predoctoral Fellowships, also known as F31 grants, from the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Nursing Research (NIH / NINR).

Randi Bates, a certified nurse practitioner and PhD candidate, has been awarded an F31 grant for her study, “The influence of early life contexts on child self-regulation: A key to lifecourse wellness.” The study deals with identifying chronic or persistent stress in young children, “with contextual markers, behavior (self-regulation), or with a biomeasure (cortisol) in hair,” Bates stated. During her PhD studies at Ohio State, Bates also earned her MS in Nursing, Family Nurse Practitioner. She is sponsored for this fellowship by Jodi Ford, PhD, RN, of the College of Nursing, Pamela Salsberry, PhD, RN, FAAN, of the College of Public Health and Laura Justice, PhD, of the Crane Center for Early Childhood Education and Policy / College of Education and Human Ecology.

Marliese Nist, who holds a BSN and an MS in Nursing Science from Ohio State, was awarded an F31 for her study, “Inflammatory Mediators of Stress Exposure and Neurodevelopment in Very Preterm Infants.” The objective of this study is to examine the indirect effect of stress exposure on neurodevelopment, mediated by inflammation, a potentially modifiable factor. “The goal is to provide evidence that can be used to improve the long-term outcomes of preterm infants,” Nist said. Nist’s sponsors are Rita Pickler,PhD, RN, FAAN;  Tondi Harrison PhD, RN, CPNP, FAAN and Deborah Steward, PhD, RN, all from the College of Nursing.

Another PhD candidate, Lisa Blair, received an F31 grant in August of 2016, making a total of three PhD Nursing students at Ohio State currently supported by F31 grants. Her sponsors are Cindy Anderson, PhD, RN, FAAN and Rita Pickler from the College of Nursing.

“Randi and Marliese are carrying on a strong tradition at the OSU College of Nursing in their successful bids to obtain this highly competitive and prestigious NIH award. As T32 fellows, they have acquired quite a bit of research training; their new awards provide them further opportunity to develop advanced research skills and knowledge,” said PhD Program Director Rita Pickler. “These awards are quite an honor for our students and their sponsors as well as the college.”

The NIH awards F31 grants to provide predoctoral students with supervised research training in specified health and health-related areas leading toward the research degree. The NIH states that the purpose of the F31 award is “to enable promising predoctoral students to obtain individualized, mentored research training from outstanding faculty sponsors while conducting dissertation research in scientific health-related fields relevant to the missions of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers.”

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New American Academy of Nursing Fellows Announced

Wed, 26th July, 2017

The American Academy of Nursing (AAN) has selected three Ohio State University College of Nursing faculty members, Michele Christina Balas, PhD, RN, CCRN-K, FCCM; Lynn Gallagher-Ford, PhD, RN, NE-BC, DPFNAP and Janine Overcash, PhD, GNP-BC, FAANP, to be inducted in its 2017 class of Academy Fellows.

The inductees will be honored at a ceremony to be held during the AAN’s annual policy conference, Transforming Health, Driving Policy, which will take place October 5-7, 2017 in Washington, D.C.

“I am proud to welcome this talented cohort of nurses as they join the ranks of the nation’s foremost health care thought leaders,” said AAN President, Bobbie Berkowitz, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN. “They bring a rich variety of expertise to the table, and we look forward to recognizing their accomplishments at our policy conference, and then working with them to transform health policy, practice and research by applying our collective nursing knowledge.”

Balas, Gallagher-Ford and Overcash will be inducted as AAN Fellows along with 170 other highly distinguished nurse leaders. With the addition of this new class, the total number of AAN Fellows stands at over 2,500. Representing all 50 states, the District of Columbia and 29 countries, the Fellows are nurse leaders in education, management, practice, policy and research. AAN Fellows include hospital and government administrators, college deans and renowned scientific researchers.

Fellow selection criteria include evidence of significant contributions to nursing and health care and sponsorship by two current AAN Fellows. Applicants are reviewed by a panel comprised of elected and appointed Fellows, and selection is based, in part, on the extent the nominee’s nursing career has influenced health policies and the health and wellbeing of all.

2017 Class of AAN Fellows from Ohio include:

Michele Christina Balas, PhD, RN, CCRN-K, FCCM – The Ohio State University

Lynn Gallagher-Ford, PhD, RN, NE-BC, DPFNAP – The Ohio State University

Scott A. Hutton, PhD, MBA, RN – Department of Veterans Affairs

Janine Overcash, PhD, GNP-BC, FAANP – The Ohio State University

Melissa Ann Stec, DNP, APRN, CNM, FACNM – University of Cincinnati

Category : General

Can a Psychological Intervention Help You Be Better at Math?

Wed, 19th July, 2017

Ellen Peters, professor of psychology and director of Ohio State’s Decision Sciences Collaborative, is lead author of a new study finding that a psychological intervention developed to help students cope and learn more in a tough statistics course also helped them improve their math literacy, otherwise known as ‘numeracy.’ The results indicate that confidence and core values have a lot to do with learning the numbers.

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Dean Melnyk Receives 2017 Sharp Cutting Edge Award

Wed, 19th July, 2017

Bernadette Melnyk, PhD, RN, CPNP/PMHNP, FAANP, FAAN, FNAP, of Columbus, Ohio, will be honored with the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) 2017 Sharp Cutting Edge Award at an awards ceremony and reception held during the AANP 2017 National Conference June 20-25, 2017, in Philadelphia, PA. Melnyk is vice president for health promotion, university chief wellness officer, and dean and professor of the College of Nursing at The Ohio State University.

The Sharp Cutting Edge Award was created in 1996 in honor of Nancy J. Sharp, MSN, RN, FAAN, a strong supporter of the NP role and a leader in national nursing organizations. “Recipients of the Sharp Award have shown leadership through innovative services, technologies or advocacy activities that advanced NP practice and patient care on a national level,” the AANP recently stated. “Throughout her career as an NP, Dr. Melnyk has endeavored to assure NPs receive excellent education while representing NPs at the highest level of our nation’s health care policy arena.” Read more about the award here.

The American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) is the largest professional membership organization for NPs of all specialties. It represents the interests of more than 222,000 NPs, including approximately 72,000 individual members and 200 organizations, providing a unified networking platform and advocating for their role as providers of high-quality, cost-effective, comprehensive, patient-centered and personalized health care. The organization provides legislative leadership at the local, state and national levels, advancing health policy; promoting excellence in practice, education and research; and establishing standards that best serve NP patients and other health care consumers. For more information, visit aanp.org.

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REACH 2017 Cohort Member Leading Drug Discovery to Improve Cancer Treatment

Wed, 5th July, 2017

Ozlem Dogan Ekici, Ohio State Newark assistant professor of chemistry and biochemistry, and several of her students are conducting drug discovery research, which could extend or save the lives of those suffering from multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that develops in the plasma cells found in bone marrow.
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Category : General

Gallo chosen for Gates Grand Challenges Grant  

Wed, 5th July, 2017

Maria Gallo, associate professor of epidemiology at the College of Public Health, recently received a boost to her research with the news that she was selected for a $100,000 Bill and Melinda Gates Grand Challenges Explorations Award. The funding will support Gallo’s research to adapt a validated computer-based psychological test — the Implicit Association Test — to measure the implicit opinions of women in Vietnam on hormonal contraceptives to encourage use.
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Category : General

The Gender Pay Gap is So Much Worse Than We Thought

Fri, 16th June, 2017

The gender pay gap is so much worse than we thought.

Gabriela Montell, The Chronicle of Higher Education 

The wage gap between college-educated men and women starts small, but it snowballs significantly over time, the economists Erling Barth, Claudia Goldin, Sari Pekkala Kerr, and Claudia Olivetti write in an article in the Harvard Business Review. By his early 40s, the average male grad takes home a whopping 55 percent more than the average female grad, the researchers found.

The reason? (Hint: if you think it’s primarily because women “choose” low-paying careers, guess again.) Marriage and motherhood — or, more precisely, the traditional gender roles women tend to adopt after tying the knot and having kids — are the pivotal factors, the researchers say. A woman’s earning power falls after she marries, thanks to a catch-22, Claire Cain Miller explains in a related article in The New York Times. Because she already earns less, it might seem sensible for a wife to put her husband’s career before her own, at least temporarily, Ms. Miller notes. But that’s where things cascade.

More often than not, it’s the wife who moves for her husband’s job (often hurting her career prospects in the process) and shoulders the bulk of the household and child-care duties, writes Ms. Miller, who is a Times correspondent. (The lack of parental leave and child-care policies in the U.S. doesn’t help any.) That in turn makes her more likely to scale back her hours (though even when she doesn’t, heremployer will pay her less on the presumption that she might), she writes. All of which undermines her long-term earnings potential (and any hope of recouping her losses) and fosters more gender bias. It’s enough to make a woman’s head spin.

The gap is widest for college-educated women in high-paying jobs, the economists say, since those positions pay more and put a premium on face time and fixed hours. (The pay gap for less-educated women expands with age, too, but less so only because men without college degrees lack the higher pay prospects of their more-educated male peers, the researchers note.) Their findings suggest that short of women staying single and childless, the keys to greater pay parity might lie in more flexible work hours, opportunities to work remotely, and a fairer labor division at home, Ms. Miller concludes.

Sally Hubbard, a legal journalist at Slate, would agree. Her biggest career break wasn’t a promotion or a job offer, but when her spouse took the lead at home, she writes in a recent column: “My husband left his law firm job to start his own firm from home. I knew the change would be good for him, but I had no idea how good it would be for me,” she explains.

Of course, to fight gender pay discrimination a woman needs to know when it’s happening in the first place. That’s where ending taboos on sharing pay information (prohibitions on doing so have long been illegal, as NPR notes) and promoting transparency come in, Kristin Wong suggests in a New Yorkmagazine article. She notes that shady employment practices — including gender bias — tend to thrive on secrecy. (Witness the recent Labor Department suit against Google, she adds.) Disclosing pay data, meanwhile, looks increasingly like a win-win scenario for employees and employers, she notes, pointing to studies showing that employees work harder and collaborate better when salaries are public.

The good news is more cities and states are introducing legislation that bars employers from penalizing workers who discuss pay and prohibits hirers from asking for salary histories.

Another study circulating online suggests that if men had more daughters, there might be greater parity, since fathers of girls tend to treat women better in the workplace, The Washington Post reports. Harvard University researchers compared venture capitalists with and without daughters and found that the former were 24 percent more likely to hire a female investment partner, the Post notes. What’s more, those who did fared better financially, the newspaper adds. While this isn’t the first study to suggest that dads of girls are more pro-equality, it does show that diversity is the reason these firms are more profitable. What seems like positive news on the surface, though, may seem less so on further reflection, Lucia Peters says in an article on Bustle: “Men shouldn’t need to have daughters in order to want to promote gender equality in the workplace and at home. It’s yet another reminder that our culture so frequently values women only insofar as they have relationships to men.”

The workplace is even less equitable for black women.

A new report from the Institute of Women’s Policy Research confirms that African-American women, hit by the double whammy of sexism and racism, really do get shafted in the workplace, an article on Slate notes. What’s more, unlike many of their white counterparts, black women are more likely to work full time and less likely to have high-earning husbands or partners to help carry the financial load, the article says.

Category : General

New Faculty Spotlight: Vanessa Chen

Fri, 16th June, 2017

Vanessa ChenWhether through her research in humanizing machine systems, or connecting to students in the classroom, Vanessa Chen remains dedicated to finding the humanity in engineering.

After gaining her doctorate in electrical and computer engineering (ECE) at Carnegie Mellon University, Chen said goodbye to Pennsylvania and eventually took an Assistant Professor position at The Ohio State University.

Working in the department of ECE, she just wrapped up her first semester as an assistant professor teaching Advanced Topics in Analog VLSI Design, or ECE 7027.

“[It] provides a good understanding how performance specifications and process technology limitations lead to implementation decisions,” Chen said.

The class covered a comprehensive overview of systems like time-interleaved, delta-sigma, flash and folding, pipeline and SAR analog-to-digital-converters (ADCs). This fall semester, Chen teaches ECE 3020, or Introduction to Electronics.

No matter the class, students remain her top priority.

“[I enjoy] working with bright students on interesting projects,” Chen said. “And helping students become successful researchers and engineers.”

Lately, Chen is very engaged with her research program on world-to-information interfaces.

“My research interest include low-power circuit designs and self-healing algorithms,” said Chen. “The ultimate goal is to integrate sensing, computing and communication in a single platform.”

She hopes to use the single platform to create a more advanced interaction between humans and machines, and even machines with other machines.

“This research is expected to enable the possibilities of personal biomedicine, for better quality of life, through ubiquitous sensing and cloud computing,” Chen said.

Plus, the department has taken quite a liking to her fact-findings. In the spring of 2018, Chen will teach a new course she developed based on her research. Integrated Circuit Design of Data Converters and Phase-Locked Loops, or ECE 7020, overviews the most recent system architectures and provides real life case studies for further understanding of the content.

Apart from her new course and research, Chen has even more goals. She hopes to collaborate more with other faculty members on projects or research.

“In the circuit area there are faculty who work on power management and RF/sensor front-ends,” said Chen. “It would be great to team up with them and work on a project that has a bigger impact on the society.”

For more information on Chen, her research and teachings visit: https://u.osu.edu/vchen/

Article by ECE Student PR Writer, Lydia Freudenberg

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